BiH also has limited comparable data on teaching and learning and faces considerable capacity and resource constraints. Considering collaboration across the countryвЂ™s different levels of government is limited, these factors prevent the development and implementation of sustainable education reforms. This review explores some of the contextual features of education systems in BiH and highlights how a stronger evaluation and assessment frameworks can help achieve higher learning standards for all students. Organisation of public administration: Agency governance, autonomy and accountability Good governance of public agencies requires the application of a set of regulatory and managerial tools to find the right balance between autonomy of agencies and adequate oversight from portfolio ministries and other actors. This paper provides insights from EU and OECD good practices, with a detailed analysis of EU acquis requirements for national regulatory agencies.
The situation has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic: SMEs found themselves fighting for survival amidst reduced demand, lockdowns and travel restrictions, and supply chain disruptions. В This report provides an overview of the implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe during the period 2019-22. It is designed to help policy makers design, implement and monitor policies to support the recovery of SMEs from the pandemic, boost their competitiveness based on OECD and EU good practices, and further enhance the regionвЂ™s economic growth and resilience. В Multi-dimensional Review of the Western Balkans - From Analysis to Action The Western Balkans region has come a long way over the last two decades in achieving economic and social progress.
During World War II, Bosnia and Herzegovina was incorporated into pro-Hitler Croatia and later became one of six member states of Yugoslavia. Attempting to free themselves from Yugoslavia and avoid Serbian rule, Bosnaks and Croats voted for independence in 1991. Though the vote was recognized internationally, local Serbs and troops from Serbia fought to declare their rule of the country and were met with resistance by Bosnaks.
GOVERNMENT & ECONOMYBosina and Herzegovina is split into two regions that govern themselves independently, each having its own president. As a result of tensions that remain among the country's three main ethnic communities, the president is elected as part of a tripartite presidency, whereby a Bosniak, Serb, and Croat president rotate, each serving eight months. Agriculture plays a major role in Bosnia and Herzegovina's economy, with some 50 percent of the land used to raise livestock or grow crops. Some of the main crops include corn, wheat, cotton, and fruit.
Popular foods include baklava, a type of sweet cake, and stuffed vegetables, both of which have Turkish roots. NATUREAround 40 percent of Bosnia and Herzegovina is covered in forest, consisting of oak, pine, and beech trees. Plums, grapes, pears, and apples are common in the country. Bosnia and Herzegovina is abundant in wildlife, which includes bears, wolves, foxes, otters, and falcons. A pilot project in the sustainable collection of wild plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina proved successful in 2009 with the possibility of its use as a model for conservation in other European countries.
Bosnia and Herzegovina - OECDAid at a glance charts These ready-made tables and charts provide for snapshot of aid (Official Development Assistance) for all DAC Members as well as recipient countries and territories. Summary reports by regions (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania) and the world are also available. SME Policy Index: Western Balkans and Turkey 2022 - Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are essential drivers of sustainable economic growth in the Western Balkans and Turkey, where they make up 99% of all firms, generate 65% value added and account for 75% of employment. Nevertheless, SMEs across the region continue to face obstacles such as difficulties accessing financing, low levels of digital uptake, regulatory barriers and relatively low participation in international trade.
HISTORYBosnia and Herzegovina's history extends way back to the time of Roman conquest in the first and second centuries B. C. Later, in the sixth century, the area of Bosnia would become part of the Byzantine Empire. The area of Herzegovina came to being in 1448, joining Bosnia later that century under Turkish rule. The Russo-Turkish War broke out in 1877 and resulted in Bosnia and Herzegovina being placed under the rule of Austria-Hungary the following year. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina fell into the hands of Serbia.
It leverages a highly participatory assessment process, which brought together the views of OECD experts, WB6 policy makers and local non-governmental stakeholders to create a balanced and realistic depiction of their performance. The report seeks to provide WB6 policy makers with a multi-dimensional benchmarking tool, enabling them to compare performance against regional peers as well as OECD good practices, and to design future policies based on rich evidence and actionable policy recommendations. Economy-specific profiles complement the regional assessment for the first time in this edition of Competitiveness in South East Europe: A Policy Outlook, and provide each WB6 economy with an in-depth analysis of their competitive potential as well as policy recommendations tailored to their specific challenges to inform their structural economic reforms and sustainable development agenda.
Against the backdrop of enhanced European Union (EU) accession prospects and a drive towards deeper regional integration, the governments of the six Western Balkan (WB6) economies have demonstrated a renewed commitment to enacting policy reforms. The third edition of Competitiveness in South East Europe: A Policy Outlook comprehensively assesses policy reforms in the WB6 economies across 16 policy dimensions crucial to their competitiveness.
New empirical evidence shows that public administrations in the Western Balkans and European Neighbourhood area lack clear policies and regulations for agency governance and misinterpret the EU acquis. This leads to a proliferation of agencies, duplication of functions and waste of public resources, a lack of accountability to portfolio ministries and generally a governance vacuum. Implementation of government policy is blocked and democratic accountability generally undermined. Finally, recommendations for better organisation of public administration are provided, based on the empirical analysis and lessons learned from SIGMA's engagement in such reforms. Competitiveness in South East Europe 2021 - A Policy Outlook The future sustainable economic development and well-being of citizens in South East Europe depend on greater economic competitiveness. Reinforcing the regionвЂ™s economic potential in a post-COVID-19 context requires a holistic, inclusive and growthвЂ‘oriented approach to policy making.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Overview - World Bank